statics n : the branch of mechanics concerned with forces in equilibrium
- Chinese: 靜力學
- Croatian: statika
Statics is the branch of physics concerned with the analysis of loads (force, torque/moment) on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. In other words it is how forces are transmitted through the members in an object such as a crane from where it is applied on the object, the hanging end, to where it is supported from, the base of the crane. When in static equilibrium, the system is either at rest, or moving at constant velocity through its center of mass.
By Newton's second law, this situation implies that the net force and net torque (also known as moment) on every body in the system is zero, meaning that for every force bearing upon a member, there must be an equal and opposite force. From this constraint, such quantities as stress or pressure can be derived. The net forces equalling zero is known as the first condition for equilibrium, and the net torque equalling zero is known as the second condition for equilibrium. See statically determinate.
Statics is thoroughly used in the analysis of structures, for instance in architectural and structural engineering. Strength of materials is a related field of mechanics that relies heavily on the application of static equilibrium.
Hydrostatics, also known as fluid statics, is the study of fluids at rest. This analyzes systems in static equilibrium which involve forces due to mechanical fluids. The characteristic of any fluid at rest is that the force exerted on any particle of the fluid is the same in every direction. If the force is unequal the fluid will move in the direction of the resulting force. This concept was first formulated in a slightly extended form by the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal in 1647 and would be later known as Pascal's Law. This law has many important applications in hydraulics. Galileo also was a major figure in the development of hydrostatics.
In economics, "static" analysis has substantially the same meaning as in physics. Since the time of Paul Samuelson's Foundations of Economic Analysis (1947), the focus has been on "comparative statics", i.e., the comparison of one static equilibrium to another, with little or no discussion of the process of going between them – except to note the exogenous changes that caused the movement.
In exploration geophysics, "statics" is used as a short form for "static correction", referring to bulk time shifts of a reflection seismogram to correct for the variations in elevation and velocity of the seismic pulse through the weathered and unconsolidated upper layers.
Other fundamental engineering topics
statics in Bosnian: Statika
statics in Catalan: Estàtica
statics in Danish: Statisk
statics in German: Statik (Physik)
statics in Spanish: Estática (mecánica)
statics in Esperanto: Statiko
statics in Persian: ایستاییشناسی
statics in French: Statique
statics in Korean: 정역학
statics in Croatian: Statika
statics in Italian: Statica
statics in Hebrew: סטטיקה
statics in Dutch: Statica
statics in Japanese: 静力学
statics in Norwegian: Statikk
statics in Norwegian Nynorsk: Statikk
statics in Polish: Statyka
statics in Portuguese: Estática
statics in Russian: Статика
statics in Slovenian: Statika
statics in Swedish: Statik
statics in Thai: สถิตยศาสตร์
statics in Turkish: Statik (fizik)
statics in Ukrainian: Статика
statics in Chinese: 静力学
Newtonian physics, acoustics, aerophysics, aerostatics, applied physics, astrophysics, basic conductor physics, biophysics, biostatics, chemical physics, cryogenics, crystallography, cytophysics, dynamics, electron physics, electronics, electrophysics, electrostatics, geophysics, gyrostatics, hydrostatics, macrophysics, mathematical physics, mechanics, medicophysics, microphysics, natural philosophy, natural science, nuclear physics, optics, philosophy, physic, physical chemistry, physical science, physicochemistry, physicomathematics, physics, psychophysics, radiation physics, radionics, rheostatics, solar physics, solid-state physics, stereophysics, stereostatics, theoretical physics, thermodynamics, thermostatics, zoophysics